Neural Representations of Hierarchical Rule Sets: The Human Control System Represents Rules Irrespective of the Hierarchical Level to Which They Belong

Neural Representations of Hierarchical Rule Sets: The Human Control System Represents Rules Irrespective of the Hierarchical Level to Which They Belong

Humans use rules to organize their actions to achieve specific goals. Although simple rules that link a sensory stimulus to one response may suffice in some situations, often, the application of multiple, hierarchically organized rules is required. Recent theories...
The Reduction of Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volume Correlates with Loss of Economic Rationality in Aging

The Reduction of Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volume Correlates with Loss of Economic Rationality in Aging

The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow, and there is mounting evidence that as humans age they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making …
Extinction of Contextual Cocaine Memories Requires Cav1.2 within D1R-Expressing Cells and Recruits Hippocampal Cav1.2-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms

Extinction of Contextual Cocaine Memories Requires Cav1.2 within D1R-Expressing Cells and Recruits Hippocampal Cav1.2-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms

Exposure to cocaine-associated contextual cues contributes significantly to relapse. Extinction of these contextual associations, which involves a new form of learning, reduces cocaine-seeking behavior; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain...
White Matter Structure in Older Adults Moderates the Benefit of Sleep Spindles on Motor Memory Consolidation

White Matter Structure in Older Adults Moderates the Benefit of Sleep Spindles on Motor Memory Consolidation

Sleep spindles promote the consolidation of motor skill memory in young adults. Older adults, however, exhibit impoverished sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism(s) explaining why motor memory consolidation in older...