Neurotransmitter switching is the gain of one neurotransmitter and the loss of another in the same neuron in response to chronic stimulation. Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter switching often appears to change the sign of the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or from inhibitory to excitatory. In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take place. Neurotransmitter switching produces up or down reversals of behavior. It is also observed in response to disease. These findings raise the possibility that neurotransmitter switching contributes to depression, schizophrenia, and other illnesses. Many early discoveries of the single gain or loss of a neurotransmitter may have been harbingers of neurotransmitter switching.